Stem cell treatment is the use of stem cells to deal with or avert a illness or situation. Bone marrow transplant is the most broadly employed stem-cell treatment, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Analysis is underway to produce a variety of sources for stem cells, as nicely as to apply stem-cell therapies for neurodegenerative diseases and circumstances this kind of as diabetes and heart illness, among other people.
Stem-cell treatment has grow to be controversial following developments this kind of as the potential of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to produce stem cells utilizing somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to produce induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is typically relevant to abortion politics and to human cloning. Moreover, efforts to market therapies based mostly on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.
For over thirty many years, bone marrow has been used to deal with people with cancer with circumstances this kind of as leukaemia and lymphoma this is the only form of stem-cell treatment that is broadly practiced. For the duration of chemotherapy, most expanding cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, even so, can not discriminate between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow. It is this side result of traditional chemotherapy methods that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse a donor’s healthy bone marrow reintroduces practical stem cells to replace the cells lost in the host’s body during therapy. The transplanted cells also generate an immune response that assists to kill off the cancer cells this method can go also far, even so, major to graft vs host illness, the most critical side result of this therapy.
Yet another stem cell treatment known as Prochymal, was conditionally accepted in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host illness in youngsters who are unresponsive to steroids. It is an allogenic stem treatment based mostly on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of grownup donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to 10,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen right up until needed.
The FDA has accepted five hematopoietic stem-cell merchandise derived from umbilical cord blood, for the therapy of blood and immunological diseases.
In 2014, the European Medicines Agency advised approval of limbal stem cells for people with severe limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.